The prevalence of hematozoan infections (Hepatozoon canis and Babesia sp., particularly Babesia canis vogeli) in canids from Venezuela, Thailand and Spain was studied by amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. H. canis infections caused simultaneously by two different isolates were confirmed by RFLP analysis in samples from all the geographic regions studied. In Venezuela, blood samples from 134 dogs were surveyed. Babesia infections were found in 2.24% of the dogs. Comparison of sequences of the 18S rRNA gene indicated that protozoan isolates were genetically identical to B. canis vogeli from Japan and Brazil. H. canis infected 44.77% of the dogs. A representative sample of Venezuelan H. canis isolates (21.6% of PCR-positives) was sequenced. Many of them showed 18S rRNA gene sequences identical to H. canis Spain 2, albeit two less frequent genotypes were found in the sample studied. In Thailand, 20 dogs were analyzed. No infections caused by Babesia were diagnosed, whereas 30% of the dogs were positive to hematozoan infection. Two protozoa isolates showing 99.7-100% identity to H. canis Spain 2 were found. In Spain, 250 dogs were studied. B. canis vogeli infected 0.01% of the animals. The sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in Spanish isolates of this protozoa was closely related to those previously deposited in GenBank® (>99% identity). Finally, 20 red foxes were screened for hematozoans employing semi-nested PCR and primers designed to detect Babesia/Theileria. Fifty percent of the foxes were positive to Theileria annae. In addition, it was found that the PCR assay was able as well to detect Hepatozoon infections. Thirty five percent of the foxes were infected with two different H. canis isolates showing 99.8-100% identity to Curupira 1 from Brazil.