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Increased susceptibility to Candida infection following cecal ligation and puncture

Authors
Journal
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
0006-291X
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
414
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.09.017
Keywords
  • Immune Suppression
  • Secondary Injury
  • Candida
  • Sepsis

Abstract

Abstract Secondary infection following septic insult represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Sepsis induced immunosuppression is a major factor in the host’s susceptibility to nosocomial infections and Candida albicans accounts for a growing number of these. Given the importance of improving our understanding of the immune response to sepsis and the increasing rates of C. albicans infections, we sought to develop a murine model of double injury consisting of primary peritonitis, i.e., cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), followed by a secondary challenge of C. albicans. As observed in previous work, after primary injury the immune profile of the host changes over time. Therefore, while keeping the mortality rates from the respective individual injuries low, we altered the timing of the secondary injury between two post-CLP time points, day two and day four. Mice subjected to C. albicans infection following CLP have significantly different survival rates dependent upon timing of secondary injury. Animals challenged with C. albicans at two days post CLP had 91% mortality whereas animals challenged at four days had 47% mortality. This improvement in survival at four days was associated with restoration of innate cell populations and as evidenced by stimulated splenocytes, increases in certain inflammatory cytokines. In addition, we show that susceptibility to C. albicans infection following CLP is dependent upon the depth of immunosuppression. Although at four days post-CLP there is a partial reconstitution of the immune system, these animals remain more susceptible to infection compared to their single injury (C. albicans alone) counterparts. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that immunosuppression following initial septic insult changes over time. This novel, two hit model of CLP followed by Candida provides additional insight into the immune compromised state created by primary peritonitis, and thereby opens up another avenue of investigation into the causes and possible cures of an emerging clinical problem.

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