This book presents new data on chemical and mineral compositions and on density of altered and fresh igneous rocks from key DSDP and ODP holes drilled on the following main tectonomagmatic structures of the ocean floor: 1. Mid-ocean ridges and abyssal plains and basins (DSDP Legs 37, 61, 63, 64, 65, 69, 70, 83, and 91 and ODP Legs 106, 111, 123, 129, 137, 139, 140, 148, and 169); 2. Seamounts and guyots (DSDP Legs 19, 55, and 62 and ODP Legs 143 and 144); 3. Intraplate rises (DSDP Legs 26, 33, 51, 52, 53, 72, and 74 and ODP Legs 104, 115, 120, 121, and 183); and 4. Marginal seas (DSDP Legs 19, 59, and 60 and ODP Legs 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, and 135). Study results of altered gabbro from the Southwest Indian Ridge (ODP Leg 118) and serpentinized ultramafic rocks from the Galicia margin (ODP Leg 103) are also presented. Samples were collected by the authors from the DSDP/ODP repositories, as well as during some Glomar Challenger and JOIDES Resolution legs. The book also includes descriptions of thin sections, geochemical diagrams, data on secondary mineral assemblages, and recalculated results of chemical analyses with corrections for rock density. Atomic content of each element can be quantified in grams per standard volume (g/1000 cm**3). The suite of results can be used to estimate mass balance, but parts of the data need additional work, which depends on locating fresh analogs of altered rocks studied here. Results of quantitative estimation of element mobility in recovered sections of the upper oceanic crust as a whole are shown for certain cases: Hole 504B (Costa Rica Rift) and Holes 856H, 857C, and 857D (Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge).