Abstract Orientations of the active site chromophores of the mitochondrial redox carriers have been investigated in hydrated, oriented multilayers of mitochondrial membranes using optical and EPR spectroscopy. The hemes of cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome c 1, and cytochromes b were found to be oriented in a similar manner, with the normal to their heme planes lying approximately in the plane of the mitochondrial membrane. The heme of cytochrome c was either less oriented in general or was oriented at an angle closer to the plane of the mitochondrial membrane than were the hemes of the “tightly bound” mitochondrial cytochromes. EPR spectra of the azide, sulfide and formate complexes of cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria in situ obtained as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field relative to the planes of the membrane multilayers showed that both hemes of the oxidase were oriented in such a way that the angle between the heme normal and the membrane normal was approx. 90°.