Abstract I review the fossil felid literature, researching the early history of the genus Pseudaelurus in Europe. I examine type Pseudaelurus specimens from Europe, Asia, and North America and emend the generic diagnosis. A large body of new material from the Frick Collection of the American Museum is described and specimens are assigned to one of six species. One species is new and one is transferred from Lynx. New material includes two partial skeletons assigned to two separate species, several skulls, one skull with associated lower jaws and intact basicranium, numerous maxillary and lower jaw specimens, and isolated postcranial items. Cranial, basicranial, and postcranial material of the Frick specimens is compared to that of European taxa as well as to modern felids. A cladistic analysis of 10 taxa and 23 characters produces hypotheses of felid relationships.