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A Simplified, Practical Echocardiographic Approach for 3-Dimensional Surfacing and Quantitation of the Left Ventricle: Clinical Application in Patients with Abnormally Shaped Hearts

Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/s0894-7317(98)70150-6
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Abstract The goal of this study was to validate the quantitative accuracy of a system for 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic reconstruction of the left ventricle to assess its volume and function in human beings by using 3 apical views as a simplified technique to promote practical clinical application. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV, ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were obtained by 3D echocardiography in 50 patients with dilated or geometrically distorted left ventricles and compared with values from magnetic resonance imaging (20 consecutive patients), angiography (22 consecutive patients), and radionuclide imaging (8 consecutive patients). Three-dimensional results were also compared with 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic estimates. Three-dimensional left ventricular reconstruction provided values that correlated and agreed well with pooled data from the other techniques for EDV ( y = 0.93 x + 9.1, r = 0.95, standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 15.2 mL, mean difference = –0.5 ± 15.4 mL), ESV ( y = 0.94 x + 4.3, r = 0.96, SEE = 11.4 mL, mean difference = 0.4 ± 11.5 mL), and EF ( y = 0.90 x + 4.1, r = 0.92, SEE = 6.2%, mean difference = –0.9 ± 6.4%) (all mean differences not significant versus 0), with greater errors by 2D echocardiography. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities of 3D echocardiography were less than 6% for EDV, ESV, and EF. The overall time for image acquisition and 3D reconstruction was 5 to 8 minutes. Although this 3D method uses only a small number of apical views, it accurately calculates EDV, ESV, and EF in patients with dilated and asymmetric left ventricles and is more accurate than 2D echocardiography. The flexible surface fit used to combine the 3 views provides a convenient visual output as well as quantitation. This simple and rapid 3D method has the potential to facilitate routine clinical applications that assess left ventricular function and changes that occur with remodeling. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1998;11:1001-12.)

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