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Lanthanide(III)-Doped Nanoparticles That Emit in the Near-Infrared

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WILEY-VCH Verlag
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Microsoft Word - 01_ second pageF.doc SYNTHESIS AND PHOTOPHYSICS OF LIGHT-CONVERTING LANTHANIDE COMPLEXES PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit Twente, op gezag van de rector magnificus, prof. dr. F. A. van Vught, volgens besluit van het College voor Promoties in het openbaar te verdedigen op vrijdag 19 mei 2000 te 15.00 uur. door Stephen Isadore Klink geboren op 16 mei 1971 te Alkmaar ii Dit proefschrift is goedgekeurd door: Promotor Prof. dr. ir. D. N. Reinhoudt Assistent promotor Dr. ir. F. C. J. M. van Veggel iii Aan mijn grootouders iv This research has been financially supported by the Council for Chemical Sciences of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (CW-NWO), in the framework of the Young Scientist program, 1995. ISBN 90-3651436-3 v Contents Chapter 1 General Introduction 1.1 General Introduction 1 1.2 References and Notes 6 Chapter 2 Photoluminescent Materials: the Trivalent Lanthanides 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Electronic Configuration 8 2.3 The Optical Transitions of Lanthanide Ions 9 2.3.1 Introduction 9 2.3.2 The 4f energy levels 9 2.3.3 The luminescence properties of lanthanide complexes in solution 12 2.4 Sensitized Lanthanide Emission 14 2.4.1 The sensitization pathway 14 2.4.2 The external heavy atom effect 16 Contents vi 2.4.3 The role of the antenna triplet state 17 2.4.4 External triplet quenchers 18 2.4.5 The role of the antenna singlet state 18 2.4.6 The electron-exchange energy transfer mechanism 19 2.4.7 Energy back-transfer 20 2.4.8 Ligand-to-metal charge transfer 21 2.5 Quenching by High Frequency Oscillators 23 2.5.1 The energy gap law 23 2.5.2 The Franck-Condon factor 24 2.5.3 The Förster energy transfer mechanism 26 2.6 Lanthanide Luminescence Characteristics 27 2.6.1 Eu3+ luminescence 27 2.6.2 Tb3+ luminescence 28 2.6.3 Nd3+, Er3+, and Yb3+ luminescence 28 2.7 Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes 29 2.7.1 Introduction 29 2.7.2 β-diketonate

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