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Social Protection in Europe 1995. Report from the Commission. COM (95) 457 final, 31 October 1995

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  • Economics


untitled COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 31.10.1995 COM(95) 457 final REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION SOCIAL PROTECTION IN EUROPE 1995 Table of contents· Foreword Summary and conclusions Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 ChapterS Chapter 7 Systems of social protection in the Union Adapting to change: recent reforms and key developments Trends in social protection and its financing Unemproyment compensation and incentives to look for work . Reforms in health care Social protection and the self-employed Social protection and caring responsibilities Sources and methodology 1- -5- ~--------------------------------------~-----------------~~-------------- -- Summary and conclusions T he development of extensive systems of social protection to support and assist people in need has been a prominent feature of European societies over the post-war years. The systems which have been established differ in detail in terms of their organisation and methods of funding, reflecting the cultural, his- torical and institutional differences - which exist between Member States. Nevertheless, they share a common characteristic of protecting all those who require support, whether tempo- rarily, because they fall ill or lose their job or have a baby, or on a longer term basis, because they retire from paid employment, become per- manently cftsabled or have children to bring up, irrespective of their ability to pay. It is the universal nature and extent of this support, and the scale of redistribu- tion of income entailed, which distin- guish systems of social protection in Europe from those in most other parts of the world or, indeed, from private insurance schemes. While systems are based on insurance principles in va- rying degrees throughout the Union, so that in many cases the amount received in benefit is related to the contributions which have been made, there is no direct li

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