A new Sciophilinae-Azana atlantica, sp. n. - is described from the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. The species has a number of distinctive apomorphic features, including loss of the mid ocellus, reduced mouthparts, Sc short and incomplete, first section of Rs missing, r-m elongated, longitudinal in position, aligned with the second section of Rs ( R(5)), unforked medial and cubital veins, R(4) missing, M(4) entirely absent, gonostyle triangular, with an inner row of elongated spines and a basal, digitiform inner projection. Some of these features are shared with other genera of the Azana-group of Sciophilinae. The shape of the scutum and the strong spines on the gonostyle make it clear that the species belongs in Azana, despite the features that are distinctive from the remaining species in the genus. There are ten species described in Azana to date, from United States, Europe, Sri Lanka, Canary Islands, tropical Africa and Baltic amber. This is the first Neotropical species belonging to the genus. The complete loss of M(4) and the separated gonocoxites suggest that Azana atlantica, sp. n. forms a monophyletic group with the Afrotropical species of the genus. Azana, Morganiella, Neoaphelomera, Neotrizygia, and Trizygia are shown to compose a small clade within the Azana-group of genera. The division of the genus into two subgenera - A. ( Azana) and A. ( Jugazana) - most probably renders A. ( Azana) paraphyletic and it is suggested that this should be for the time being abandoned.