Abstract Based on a sample of 7478 Scottish emigrants, this paper sets out the changing temporal and spatial patterns of Scottish emigration and settlement in pre-Confederation Canada. It identifies where Scottish emigrants came from, where they went in Canada, and whether discrete channels of migration existed. It argues that Scottish emigration consisted of distinct Highland and Lowland flows. Whereas Highland emigration comprised a few major channels of emigration to different parts of Canada, Lowland emigration was relatively diffuse. This was largely due to the community nature of Highland emigration, as compared with the more individualistic Lowland movement.