This paper describes the first case of infection with a recently described novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), in Shanghai, China. The case is originally from Chizhou City, Anhui province within an endemic area for SFTSV. We describe the etiology, epidemiological characteristics, clinical diagnosis and treatment of this fatal case. This case is unique because major cause of death was renal failure, whereas other reported cases have been due to hemorrhage. The investigation and response to this case provides meaningful insight for the early and rapid diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in non-endemic regions in China and globally.