Abstract In this study, we explored immune responses after intramuscular co-administration of the HIV-1 gp160 Env gene-expressing adenovirus (Ad) vector and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector in a mouse model. Surprisingly, the simultaneous vaccination of the two vaccines, either as a mixture or separately, suppressed responses, when compared with the administration of each vaccine separately. Ad vaccine or MVA vaccine, co-administered with a mock MVA or mock Ad vector, also resulted in suppressing HIV-specific effector T-cell responses, and a part of antigen-specific memory T-cell responses. In an in vitro experiment, the two vectors infected individual cells and MVA suppressed the transgene expression produced by the adenovirus vector. This viral interference may involve soluble factor(s), secreted by virus-infected cells. Our study may help in designing a vaccination regimen and in investigating viral interference.