Aims: The HR-NBL1 Study of the European SIOP Neuroblastoma Group (SIOPEN) randomised two high dose regimens to learn about potential superiority and toxicity profiles.Patients and Methods: At interim analysis 1483 high risk neuroblastoma patients (893 males) were included since 2002 with either INSS stage 4 disease (1383 pts) above 1 year, or as infants (59 pts) and stage 2&3 of any age (145 pts) with MYCN amplification. The median age at diagnosis was 2.9 years (1 month-19.9 years) with a median follow up of 3 years. Response eligibility criteria prior randomisation after Rapid Cojec Induction (J Clin Oncol, 2010) ± 2 courses of TVD (Cancer, 2003) included complete bone marrow remission and at least partial response at skeletal sites with no more than 3, but improved mIBG positive spots and a PBSC harvest of at least 3x10E6 CD34/kgBW. The randomised regimens were BuMel [busulfan oral till 2006, 4x150mg/m² in 4 ED; or intravenous use according to body weight as licenced thereafter; melphalan 140mg/m²/day) and CEM [carboplatinum ctn. infusion (4x AUC 4.1mg/ml.min/day, etoposid ctn. infusion (4x 338mg/m²/day or [4x 200mg/m²/day]*, melphalan (3x70mg/m²/day; 3x60mg/m²/day*;*reduced dosis if GFR< 100ml/min/1.73m²). Supportive care followed institutional guidelines. VOD prophylaxis included ursadiol, but randomised patients were not eligible for the prophylactic defibrotide trial. Local control included surgery and radiotherapy of 21Gy.Results: Of 1483 patients, 584 were being randomised for the high dose question at data lock. A significant difference in event free survival (3-year EFS 49% vs. 33%, p<0.001) and overall survival (3-year OS 61% vs. 48%, p=0.003) favouring the BuMel regimen over the CEM regimen was demonstrated. The relapse/progression rate was significantly higher after CEM (0.60±0.03) than after BuMel (0.48±0.03)(p<0.001). Toxicity data had reached 80% completeness at last analysis. The severe toxicity rate up to day 100 (ICU and toxic deaths) was below 10%, but was significantly higher for CEM (p= 0.014). The acute toxic death rate was 3% for BuMel and 5% for CEM (NS). The acute HDT toxicity profile favours the BuMel regimen in spite of a total VOD incidence of 18% (grade 3:5%).Conclusions: The Peto rule of P<0.001 at interim analysis on the primary endpoint, EFS was met. Hence randomization was stopped with BuMel as recommended standard treatment in the HR-NBl1/SIOPEN trial which is still accruing for the randomised immunotherapy question.