Abstract This work reviews the availability and the potential of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology using coal fly ash (FA). Because the technology can be effectively applied on-site to coal fired power plants and as FA contains sufficient alkali components, the technology may be another option of CCS technology to a limited extent. The technology can be divided into wet and dry processes. In the former, the available components for CCS in FA are leached into solution by the solvent where they are subsequently consumed for carbonation to store CO2. Particularly, the CO2 storage capacity of CaO-enriched FA solution mixed with brine under high pressure may be equal to or greater than the true CO2 emission reduction achieved by applying FA as a cement additive. In the dry process, FA can be used as a direct support or as the raw material of the sorbent supports for CO2 capture. The dry process is effectively applied for CO2 capture rather than storage because the sorbents should be regenerated. Another advantage of the technology is the stabilization of the harmful components present in FA, which are mostly co-precipitated with carbonated FA during the process.