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Identification of regulatory sequences and protein-binding sites in the liver-type promoter of a gene encoding 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.

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  • Research Article
  • Biology


The liver-type and muscle-type isozymes of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase are encoded by one gene that uses two alternative promoters. We have identified cis-acting sequences and protein-binding sites on the liver-type promoter. Transfection assays with deleted promoters showed that maximal promoter activity is contained within 360 bp upstream of the cap site. DNase I footprinting experiments with liver and spleen nuclear extracts and with purified proteins revealed several protein-binding sites in this region. These included four binding sites for nuclear factor I, one site that contains an octamer consensus but showed a liver-specific footprint pattern, two liver-specific protein-binding sites, and one poly(dG)-containing binding site. Transfection of cells of hepatic origin suggested that all these sites except one are involved in transcriptional regulation. The region between -360 and -2663 contained an element that functioned as a silencer in a nonhepatic cell line. We conclude that in liver transcription from the liver-type promoter of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene is controlled by ubiquitous and tissue-specific factors and involves activating and derepressing mechanisms.

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