Channels formed by the gap junction protein Connexin36 (CX36) contribute to the proper control of insulin secretion. We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure to glucose decreases Cx36 levels in insulin-secreting cells in vitro. Here, we investigated whether hyperglycemia also regulates Cx36 in vivo. Using a model of continuous glucose infusion in adult rats, we showed that prolonged (24-48 h) hyperglycemia reduced the Cx36 gene Gjd2 mRNA levels in pancreatic islets. Accordingly, prolonged exposure to high glucose concentrations also reduced the expression and function of Cx36 in the rat insulin-producing INS-1E cell line. The glucose effect was blocked after inhibition of the cAMP/PKA pathway and was associated with an overexpression of the inducible cAMP early repressor ICER-1/ICER-1γ, which binds to a functional cAMP-response element in the promoter of the Cx36 gene Gjd2. The involvement of this repressor was further demonstrated using an antisense strategy of ICER-1 inhibition, which prevented glucose-induced downregulation of Cx36. The data indicate that chronic exposure to glucose alters the in vivo expression of Cx36 by the insulin-producing β-cells through ICER-1/ICER-1γ overexpression. This mechanism may contribute to the reduced glucose sensitivity and altered insulin secretion, which contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes.