Publisher Summary This chapter introduces the criminal justice system of the Russian Federation. It presents the major components of the system—the police, judiciary, law, corrections, and juvenile justice—along with an overview of the political system. It also outlines a brief history of some of the components of the system and describes the organization and administration and the various roles of the practitioners. The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Russian Federation had a profound impact on the region. Every event in Russia has served as an illustration of the leadership's attempt to transform the old order into a new order. The old order is dominated by the Marxist-Leninist philosophy; encouraged governance based on ideological principles and established a highly centralized planned economic system. The country is in a state of transition. At times, transition can best be characterized as democratization. At other times, the country has appeared to be in a chaotic state. The both situations impact criminal justice; it is chaos that has troubling implications for the criminal justice system—the principal source for law enforcement and order maintenance in a civil society. The leadership and people of the Russian Federation are grappling with two central features of the democratization process. One is the establishment of a market economy, which is having a striking impact on all people throughout the country. The other key feature is the recognition of the importance of government by rule of law. It is the feature that is having a profound impact on the country's criminal justice system.