Abstract. Records of 3,449 patients admitted to Karitas Hospital at Waitabula in eastern Indonesia with microscopyconfirmed malaria through 2008 and 2009 were systematically reviewed. Falciparum, vivax, and mixed species malaria occurred among 1,541, 1,837, and 71 admissions, respectively. Among these, 400 (26%), 199 (11%), and 15 (21%) had serious illness. Fatalities occurred in 46 (12%), 18 (9%), and 2 (13%) of these patients, respectively. Although patients with a diagnosis of falciparum malaria were more likely to have serious illness compared with those with vivax malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4???3.5), this diagnosis nonetheless was associated with 32% of serious illness and 27% of fatalities. Among the seriously ill with a diagnosis of falciparum or vivax malaria, no significant difference in risk of death occurred (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.7???2.5). Serious and fatal illness was predominantly anemia or altered mental state syndromes among patients with either of the species diagnoses.Plasmodium vivaxwas associated with a substantial share of the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by malaria in this hypo- to meso-endemic community.