Abstract EEG brain maps obtained in 48 drug-free hospitalized schizophrenics diagnosed according to DSMIII demonstrated significant differences as compared with normal controls characterized by a decrease of alpha-1 activity, increase of beta activity and acceleration of the centroid. These findings suggest a state of sustained hyperarousal in schizophrenia. While the patients with negative schizophrenia showed a bi-temporal and frontal augmentation of delta/theta activity, patients with florid symptomatoloty exhibited just the opposite findings. Alpha-1 activity was attenuated, beta activity augmented in both groups with the findings more pronounced in the positive schizophrenia group. The increase of slow activity suggests an organic factor in the pathogenesis of the negative syndrome, which was supported by correlation maps between EEG measures and the apathy syndrome as measured by the AMDP system. Treatment of schizophrenics with predominantly positive symptoms with 2 different neuroleptics such as remoxipride and haloperidol resulted also in differential effects on brain activity: while haloperidol augmented delta/theta and alpha activity and decreased beta activity, remoxipride produced a decrease of slow and increase of beta activity as well as an acceleration of the centroid suggesting vigilance-promoting properties of the drug. These differential effects on the neurophysiological level were also reflected at the behavioural one evaluated by psychometry, while global clinical evaluation showed, as expected, similar improvement with both drugs (apart from extrapyramidal side effects being significantly more pronounced after haloperidol than remoxipride). Our findings suggest that brain electrical signal topography is a promising method in regard to a better understanding of pathogenesis and treatment in schizophrenia.