The rate of introduction of transgenic crops in Spanish agriculture has been limited by a number of adverse factors, some of which are linked to specific local circumstances, while others are common to most European Union (EU) member countries. Because of its dry climate, Spain is the main European importer of feed grains, mainly soybeans and corn. The public was introduced to transgenic crops through the appearance of press headlines reporting demonstrations by nongovernmental organizations protesting transgenic grains at ports of entry. The main purpose of this chapter is to examine the present status and future prospects of some key transgenic crops, such as corn and cotton. However, in order to understand the current impact and future potential of such crops in Spanish agriculture, some background facts and a brief description of the general scenario are pertinent. We will begin by briefly considering some relevant characteristics of Spanish agriculture, the R&D potential of the country, and the legal backdrop.