Abstract The mechanisms by which (+)-amphetamine biphasically modifies neuromuscular transmission were studied in the rat phrenic nervediaphragm preparation. Low to moderate amphetamine concentrations (30–300 μM) enhanced twitch height and potentiated the nerve stimulated release of acetylcholine (ACh) by up to 4.8-fold from the phrenic nerve. Higher amphetamine concentrations depressed muscle twitch and ACh release. Using a cannulated diaphragm preparation, amphetamine enhanced the twitch response to nerve stimulation but markedly depressed the contractions elicited by a pulsed injection of ACh. Amphetamine-induced enhancement of ACh release was prevented by pretreatment of animals with α-methyl- p-tyrosine, suggesting that amphetamine may be acting indirectly by releasing catecholamines. These results support the hypothesis that amphetamine enhancement results from a presynaptic increase in ACh release and the blocking actions are mediated by a postsynaptic inhibitory effect.