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Dysbindin Promotes the Post-Endocytic Sorting of G Protein-Coupled Receptors to Lysosomes

Authors
Journal
PLoS ONE
1932-6203
Publisher
Public Library of Science
Publication Date
Volume
5
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009325
Keywords
  • Research Article
  • Cell Biology/Cell Signaling
  • Cell Biology/Membranes And Sorting
  • Cell Biology/Neuronal And Glial Cell Biology
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Medicine

Abstract

Background Dysbindin, a cytoplasmic protein long known to function in the biogenesis of specialized lysosome-related organelles (LROs), has been reported to reduce surface expression of D2 dopamine receptors in neurons. Dysbindin is broadly expressed, and dopamine receptors are members of the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that function in diverse cell types. Thus we asked if dysbindin regulates receptor number in non-neural cells, and further investigated the cellular basis of this regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used RNA interference to deplete endogenous dysbindin in HEK293 and HeLa cells, then used immunochemical and biochemical methods to assess expression and endocytic trafficking of epitope-tagged GPCRs. Dysbindin knockdown up-regulated surface expression of D2 receptors compared to D1 receptors, as reported previously in neurons. This regulation was not mediated by a change in D2 receptor endocytosis. Instead, dysbindin knockdown specifically reduced the subsequent trafficking of internalized D2 receptors to lysosomes. This distinct post-endocytic sorting function explained the minimal effect of dysbindin depletion on D1 receptors, which recycle efficiently and traverse the lysosomal pathway to only a small degree. Moreover, dysbindin regulated the delta opioid receptor, a more distantly related GPCR that is also sorted to lysosomes after endocytosis. Dysbindin was not required for lysosomal trafficking of all signaling receptors, however, as its depletion did not detectably affect down-regulation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Dysbindin co-immunoprecipitated with GASP-1 (or GPRASP-1), a cytoplasmic protein shown previously to modulate lysosomal trafficking of D2 dopamine and delta opioid receptors by direct interaction, and with HRS that is a core component of the conserved ESCRT machinery mediating lysosome biogenesis and sorting. Conclusions/Significance These results identify a distinct, and potentially widespread function of dysbindin in promoting the sorting of specific GPCRs to lysosomes after endocytosis.

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