Abstract In aqueous methyl linoleate emulsions (pH 7.4, 25 °C, air-saturated), nitrosylmyoglobin and saturated fatty acid anions (palmitate and stearate investigated) each showed antioxidant effect on metmyoglobin-induced peroxidation as measured by oxygen depletion rate. For equimolar concentration of nitrosylmyoglobin and metmyoglobin and for metmyoglobin in moderate excess, a reduction in oxygen consumption rate of ∼70% was observed. Fatty acid anions reduced oxygen consumption rate most significantly for palmitate (up to 60% for a fatty acid:heme protein ratio of 90:1). No further antioxidative effect was seen for fatty acid anions in the presence of nitrosylmyoglobin, whereas nitrosylmyoglobin showed a further antioxidant effect in presence of fatty acid anions in the metmyoglobin-catalyzed process. The antioxidative mechanism of nitrosylmyoglobin and fatty acid anions is different, and while the fatty acid anions seem active in inhibiting initiation of oxidation through protection against metmyoglobin activation into perferrylmyoglobin, as shown by freeze-quench Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, nitrosylmyoglobin is rather active in the oxygen consuming (propagation) phase.