The purpose of study was to determine the incidence of hip fracture in 2001, to compare this with that of 1991, and to identify possible causes of change. Patients aged 50 yr or more living in Gwangju City and Chonnam Province, Korea, and who sustained a fracture of the hip during 2001 were investigated. Only patients who were admitted to hospitals for primary treatment of the first hip fracture were selected. There were 1,152 patients. A comparison of fracture incidences for 1991 and 2001 showed considerable increase during the 10-yr period. The total annual number of hip fractures rose from 247 in 1991 to 1,152 in 2001 and the fracture incidence also increased remarkably from 3.3 persons per 10,000 population in 1991 to 13.3 in 2001, representing a 4-fold increase over 10-yr. The reasons for this rising trend of hip fracture were not fully explained. However, an increase in the elderly population, an increase in osteoporosis, and an increase in injurious falls could partly account for the observed increase.