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The etiology of late lower arch crowding alternative to mesially directed forces: A review

Authors
Journal
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
0889-5406
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
105
Issue
6
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/s0889-5406(94)70144-x

Abstract

The causes of late crowding in the lower arch alternative to mesially directed forces are reviewed under the headings: late mandibular growth, skeletal structure and complex growth pattern, soft tissue maturation, periodontal forces, tooth structure, occlusal factors, and connective tissue changes. A multifactorial basis for late lower arch crowding seems likely.

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