Abstract Proteomics, the global analysis of expressed cellular proteins, provides powerful tools for the detailed comparison of proteins from normal and neoplastic tissue. In particular, cancer cell culture models are suited for applying proteomics techniques, such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry, to identify specific protein expression profiles and/or proteins that may be associated with a defined phenotype of the cancer cells. As an instance of such an application of proteomics techniques, the detailed proteome analyses of different drug-resistant and thermoresistant cancer cell lines will be discussed. Finally, the potential roles of newly identified factors in a distinct biological mechanism have to be proven by functional studies. This experimental validation strategy will be discussed for two different factors identified by 2D-PAGE analyses of drug-resistant carcinoma cell lines, the “transporter associated with antigen presentation 1” (TAP1) and 14-3-3 σ.