Abstract Background Various preoperative, surgical, and postoperative markers of impaired outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation have been reported, but the influence of intraoperative hemodynamic aberrations has not been thoroughly investigated. Setting University Hospital. Study design Retrospective cohort analysis. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed computerized anesthesia records to determine associations between occurrences of abnormally low or high mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), cardiac output, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) with negative surgical outcome. Negative surgical outcome was defined as poor early graft function, primary graft nonfunction, or death attributable to hemodynamic causes. Results Of 789 patients, 142 (18.0%) had negative surgical outcome. Controlling for the influence of United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status > 1, long operation time, cold donor organ ischemia time, and donor age, the only hemodynamic parameters that were independently associated with negative surgical outcome were MAP < 40 mmHg at least once during the procedure (odds ratio [OR] 2.39, p = 0.0016) and MPAP > 40 mmHg at least 3 times during the procedure (OR 2.2, p = 0.035). The occurrence of MAP < 40 mmHg was temporally associated with donor graft reperfusion. Hepatic artery thromboses were not associated with hemodynamic aberrations. Conclusions Hemodynamic events are independently associated with adverse outcomes after orthotopic liver transplantation.