The nucleotide sequence of a low molecular weight RNA coded by bacteriophage T4 (and previously identified as species alpha) has been determined. The molecule is of particular biological interest for its associated biosynthetic properties. This RNA is 76 nucleotides in length, contains eight modified bases, and can be arranged in a cloverleaf configuration common to tRNAs. The anticodon sequence is UGU, which corresponds to the threonine-specific codons ACA G. The nucleotide sequence was determined primarily by nearest-neighbor analysis of RNA synthesized in vitro using [alpha-32P]nucleoside triphosphates. Using the single-strand specific nuclease S1, two in vivo labeled half-molecules were generated and analysed. This information together with restrictions imposed by nearest-neighbor data, provided a unique linear sequence of nucleotides with the features of secondary structure common to tRNA molecules.