Publisher Summary Food-processing technologies have created new tastes: for example, US consumers perceive refined grains to be more palatable and to have a superior taste to whole grains. While consumer education is necessary to promote healthful diets (low in refined sugars and flours and high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains), taste seems to be the overriding factor for making food choices. Without making changes to food tastes and textures, it seems unlikely that consumers will willingly choose more beneficial products over unhealthful ones. Sensory food science can respond to these changes in consumer preferences and create foods that are more healthful as well as pleasurable. This chapter examines (1) how consumer behavior can be changed in favor of a more healthful diet, thus better controlling obesity, and (2) the role that food manufacturers can play in supporting healthful food choices.