The occurrence of raw humus layer and its relationship to the structure of vegetation and environmental variables were studied on 501 sample plots located systematically in drained peatland forests. The drainage had been done in the 1930~40s. The correlation between the amount of raw humus and the two-dimensional GNMDS (global nonmetric multidimensional scaling) ordination space was 0.57. The thickness of the raw humus layer increased in the direction of the drainage succession gradient. The correlations between the thickness of the raw humus and the measured environmental variables were weak. The strongest correlation was with the stand volume (0.31) and the drainage age (0.2 1). Weakness of these correlations was most probably due to the regressive succession on many plots. On average, the raw humus layer was thickest 6.5 cm, in Vaccinium vitis-idaea transformed type I (developed from genuine forested mires) and 5.4 cm in type II (developed from treeless or composite types). In Vaccinium myrtillus types the corresponding mean thickness was 5.2 cm (I) and 3.2 cm (11) and in dwarfshrub types 3.3 cm (I) and 4.6 cm (11). The secondary succession is slower and the amount of the needle litter (of Pinus sylvestris) smaller in the dwarf-shrub type than in the V. vitis-idaea type. In the V. myrtillus type the origin of the litter is more dominated by deciduous trees, the decomposition faster and the coverage of Pleurozium schreberi clearly smaller than in the nutrient-poorer types. P. schreberi tolerates the litterfall well and together with especially conifer litter, and maybe with slow decaying fine roots, too, it forms a loose raw humus layer on old drained peatlands. Being a poor gerrnination bed, the raw humus makes successful stand regeneration difficult.