This technical background paper describes the methods applied and data sources used in the compilation of the 1980-2003 data set for material flow accounts of the Mexican economy and presents the data set. It is organised in four parts: the first part gives an overview of the Material Flow Accounting (MFA) methodology. The second part presents the main material flows of the Mexican economy including biomass, fossil fuels, metal ores, industrial minerals and, construction minerals. The aim of this part is to explain the procedures and methods followed, the data sources used as well as providing a brief evaluation of the quality and reliability of the information used and the accounts established. Finally, some conclusions will be provided.