Abstract Synthesis of lipoxygenase metabolites of [ 14C]arachidonic acid by mouse spleen lymphocyte cultures was inhibited by the leukocyte product 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel experiments, the influence of 15-HETE on mitogenesis in spleen lymphocyte cultures was examined. 15-HETE at concentrations similar to those which inhibited cellular lipoxygenases progressively inhibited mitogenesis induced by the T-cell mitogen PHA but had no significant effect on the mitogenic response to the B-cell mitogen LPS. The inhibitory response was maximal when 15-HETE was added within 8 hr of exposure to PHA. Several analogs of 15-HETE having progressively fewer double bonds were tested in the same systems. 15-OH,20:3 had approximately the same potency as 15-HETE in inhibiting both mitogenesis and formation of metabolites from [ 14C]arachidonic acid. 15-OH, 20:2 and 15-OH,20:0 were much less active in either assay. Mitogenesis, induced in spleen cell cultures by the tumor promoter phorbol myristate acetate, was also blocked by 15-HETE. These experiments indicate that lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid may play an important role in T-lymphocyte blastogenesis and suggest that 15-HETE, via its ability to selectively inhibit cellular lipoxygenases, may function as an endogenous regulator of T-lymphocyte responses.