Nationalism and fundamentalist reactions in France. Mythologies of identity and anti-modern resentment, Pierre-André Taguieff. The " traditional-nationalist " component plays a major role today in reactionary doctrines in France, particularly in that of the Front National. Its theoretical definition requires a combination of three concepts : the ideal type of nationalism defined by Isaiah Berlin, resentment, analyzed by Talcott Parsons and secular religion, inspired by Serge Moscovici. This theoretical construction, applied to the discourse of Catholic traditionalism, reveals the constant features of this doctrine since the end of the 19th century, based on an anti-modernity mythology, and makes it possible to analyse the set of arguments that an overly rational vision prevents from grasping at first view.