Objective : The purpose was to investigate the effects of group exercise by elderly people on prevention of physical disability, maintenance of physical function, health-related(QOL, and functional capacity of daily living. The effects of group exercise were compared between high risk elderly, preventive benefits elderly, and elderly day care attendees. Method : Participants comprising 75 high risk elderly, 122 preventive benefits elderly, and89 elderly day care attendees, performed specially designed training consisting of muscle resistance training using an elastic band, flexibility exercises, and balance training twice a week for three months in 10 day-care facilities. Result : Performance in tests of 10 m maximum walking speed, back and forth step-width, functional reach, timed up and go, knee extensor strength, and scores on the SF-8^ health survey were significantly improved (p<0.05) in all groups. Gains of the high-risk elderly group in 10 m maximum walking speed and knee extensor strength were significantly higher than those of the preventive benefits elderly group. Scores on the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence were significantly improved (p<0.05) in only the elderly day care attendees.