The high-resolution genotyping method of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to study the genetic relationships between Campylobacter jejuni strains infecting chickens (n = 54) and those causing gastroenteritis in humans (n = 53). In addition, C. jejuni strains associated with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (n = 14) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) (n = 4), two related acute paralytic syndromes in human, were included. Strains were isolated between 1989 and 1998 in The Netherlands. The AFLP banding patterns were analyzed with correlation-based and band-based similarity coefficients and UPGMA (unweighted pair group method using average linkages) cluster analysis. All C. jejuni strains showed highly heterogeneous fingerprints, and no fingerprints exclusive for chicken strains or for human strains were obtained. All strains were separated in two distinct genetic groups. In group A the percentage of human strains was significantly higher and may be an indication that genotypes of this group are more frequently associated with human diseases. We conclude that C. jejuni from chickens cannot be distinguished from human strains and that GBS or MFS related strains do not belong to a distinct genetic group.