Abstract The equilibrium solubility of uranyl nitrate in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO 2) in the absence and presence of different modifiers was investigated. In the presence of methanol and HNO 3, uranyl nitrate showed a considerable solubility in SF-CO 2. SF-CO 2 modified with different co-extractants such as tributylphosphate (TBP), methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), acetylacetone (AA) and methanol (MeOH) at 60°C and 250 atm was used for the extraction of uranyl nitrate from cellulose-based filter papers. The extraction efficiency of the system for uranyl ion was found to decrease in the order TBP>MIBK>AA>MeOH. The use of eight potential chelating agents bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEPH), tri- n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 (DC18C6), dibenzoylmethane (DBM), 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX), diphenylaminesulfonic acid (DPASA) 1,4- bis-[4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl]benzene (DMPOPOP) and TBP for uranyl ion extraction from filter paper samples by methanol modified SF-CO 2 was investigated. The organophosphorous reagents TOPO and HDEPH showed the highest extraction efficiency in the series. The synergistic extraction of uranyl nitrate with HDEPH and TOPO in the presence of DC18C6 was also studied.