In 2003 an agreement was finalized to instigate arguably the most significant reform of the European Union's (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) since its inception. In the Luxembourg Agreement many of the direct payments that have been linked to production are decoupled and instead provided in the form of a land-based payment. The reforms did not include any significant changes to either EU border support or the ability of the EU to utilize export subsidies that have been widely criticized by other nations. Even though the reforms do not directly address trade in agricultural products it is argued that World Trade Organization (WTO) concerns played a significant role in the designs of the reforms. In this paper an analysis of the Luxembourg reforms and the European proposal for agriculture under the WTO is presented. The results are used as the basis for a discussion of the interaction of the WTO and CAP reform and the implications for the agricultural sector in the EU.