Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the cultivation of isolated protoplasts and hybridization of somatic plant cells. Technological advances in plant-protoplast research, along with progress in the use of cell cultures, have opened up new perspectives for studying the biology of plant cells and practical application of the knowledge obtained. The isolation and cultivation of plant protoplasts is a new high-resolution technique for studying the biology of plant cells. There are many problems to be solved that are associated with obtaining protoplasts active in division and morphogenesis from all species of theoretical or practical interest. There are few studies devoted to the properties of the surface membrane of protoplasts, its behavior during the uptake of substances and particles, and its response to hormones, toxins, and pathogenic organisms.