Abstract An efficient purification procedure utilizing affinity chromatography is described for spinach ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, a light-regulated chloroplastic enzyme. Gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme reveal a dimeric structure of 44, 000 M r subunits. Chemical crosslinking with dimethyl suberimidate confirms the presence of two subunits per molecule of native kinase, which are shown to be identical by partial NH 2-terminal sequencing. Based on sulfhydryl titrations and on amino acid analyses, each subunit contains four to five cysteinyl residues. The observed slow loss of activity during spontaneous oxidation in air-saturated buffer correlates with the intramolecular oxidation of two sulfhydryl groups, presumably those involved in thioredoxin-mediated regulation.