This thesis was prepared in cooperation with the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the Gesellschaft für Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF), and the Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle (UFZ) in frame of the project "Airborne and laboratory spectroscopic studies for differentiation of reactively alterated lignite mining pits in Central Germany" (No. 02 WB 9667/5) which was gratefully supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF). The major idea of the project was to achieve a calibration of the spectroscopic data acquired by the remote sensing though the results obtained from conventionally petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical analyses. The main goal of this thesis was the characterization of the hydro- and geochemical alterations in the conveyor bridge dump of the open lignite mining pit Zwenkau which is located in the Central Germany District southern of Leipzig. Therefore, dependent on their ages in terms of dumping and their surface-near locations the dump sediments were investigated and the specific properties of the different types of dump water and soil gases were acquired as well in order to describe the ongoing chemical, petrographical and structural alterations and interactions between the sediments, the water and the soil gases in the conveyor bridge. Finally, a model of the chronological development of the overburden sediments starting from their spilling up to an age of about 20 years is proposed which well explains the observed phenomena regarding the appearing endogenous and exogenous interaction factors.