Abstract. Selenium is an essential trace element. In cattle, selenium deficiency causes dysfunction of various organs, including skeletal and cardiac muscles. In humans as well, lack of selenium is associated with many disorders, but despite accumulation of clinical reports, muscle diseases are not generally considered on the list. The goal of this review is to establish the connection between clinical observations and the most recent advances obtained in selenium biology. Recent results about a possible role of selenium-containing proteins in muscle formation and repair have been collected. Selenoprotein N is the first selenoprotein linked to genetic disorders consisting of different forms of congenital muscular dystrophies. Understanding the muscle disorders associated with selenium deficiency or selenoprotein N dysfunction is an essential step in defining the causes of the disease and obtaining a better comprehension of the mechanisms involved in muscle formation and maintenance.