Abstract The effect of simultaneous infections with trypanosomes ( Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense) and gastrointestinal nematodes on the productivity of sheep and goats was studied in 20 animals (6 male goats and 14 male sheep) at a farm near Maputo. The animals were divided into 4 groups which received either treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes, or against trypanosomes, or treatment against both, or no treatment at all. In two-weekly and later in weekly intervals body weight, packed cell volume, body temperature, worm egg burdens and occurence of trypanosomes in the peripheral blood were recorded. Body temperature and packed cell volume did not show the expected close relation to an infection with either trypanosomes or gastrointestinal nematodes, but the differences in the increase of body weight among the 4 groups were very considerable. Animals receiving both treatments gained an average of 13.5 kg in body weight in 40 weeks compared with 5.1 kg (surviving animals with treatment against worm parasites), 6.5 kg (surviving animals with treatment against trypanosomes) and 3.4 kg (surviving animals without any treatment). Of the last 3 groups 1 sheep (21 kg), 2 sheep (50 kg) and 1 sheep (21 kg), respectively, died. One goat, treated against gastrointestinal nematodes, but suffering from an infection with Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense was killed at the end of the experiment. A striking finding during the post-mortem examination was the complete hyperplasia of the red-marrow of the right and left femur.