Abstract Gorham–Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of endothelial-lined vessels in bone and the progressive destruction of bone. Although Jackson described the first case of GSD in 1838, the clinical and histological features of GSD were not defined until Gorham and Stout published their report on massive osteolysis in 1955. In the years since Gorham and Stout's groundbreaking publication, more than 300 cases of GSD have been described in the literature. These reports have revealed that the progressive resorption of bone in GSD causes severe physical deformities, disabilities, and life-threatening complications. Unfortunately, the underlying cause of GSD remains unknown and, as a result, the therapeutic options for individuals with GSD are limited. Here we review the latest advances in GSD research and present strategies to address basic and clinical research questions related to GSD.