Mouse tumour cells were treated with various chemical modifiers. The number of modifying groups per cell was determined with labelled reagents. The effects of the different modifying groups on the immunogenicity of the tumour cells was tested in syngeneic mice for tumour protection using a challenge dose of viable cells at 1000 or 10,000 time LD100. Best protection was obtained after immunization of animals with tumour cells modified with dimethylsulphate or acetic anhydride, or with glutardialdehyde-fixed cells treated with a carbodiimide and methylamine. Up to 40% of the animals remained tumour-free. The other animals exhibited a greatly increased mean survival time. The post-challenge sera showed no detectable amounts of antibodies against the tumour cells.