BackgroundNumerous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarkers have been assessed in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the value of α-fetoprotein (AFP)-L3% and transforming growth factor B1 (TGFB1) as prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). This observational cohort study included 40 patients with HCC diagnosed by triphasic computed tomography criteria indicated for radiofrequency ablation. Serum AFP, AFP-L3%, and TGFB1 were measured in all patients before and 3 months after radiofrequency ablation.ResultsStatistically significant lower levels of TGFB1, AFP, and AFP-L3% were noted in the HCC patients after radiofrequency ablation. Significant lower levels of TGFB1, AFP, and AFP-L3% were found in the no recurrence group in comparison to the recurrence group. The cutoff value of TGFB1 > 56.87 ng/mL, AFP > 74.9 ng/mL, and AFP-L3% > 8.5% was the best in the discrimination of tumor recurrence with sensitivity of 85.7%, 57.1%, and 100%; specificity of 54.6%, 84.9%, and 100%; and diagnostic accuracy of 64.5%, 69%, and 100%, respectively.ConclusionTGFB1 and AFP-L3% are good prognostic markers for HCC. They could be used to monitor the response of HCC to treatment.