Across many studies, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activity has been found to correlate with subjective value during value-based decision-making. Recently, however, vmPFC has also been shown to reflect a hexagonal gridlike code during navigation through physical and conceptual space, and such gridlike codes have been proposed to enable val...
How do we generalize knowledge between problems that are only loosely related but have a similar structure? Baram et al. take inspiration from the generalization properties of entorhinal cortex in rodent spatial tasks to show that entorhinal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices generalize the structure of reinforcement learning tasks in humans.
Physical touch in the form of holding a loved one's hand attenuates the neural response to threat. Speculation regarding the neural mediation of this effect points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which is known to have inhibitory connections with threat responsive brain regions such as the amygdala. Despite the attractiveness of this...
Journal of cognitive neuroscience
The hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) play key roles in numerous cognitive domains including mind-wandering, episodic memory, and imagining the future. Perspectives differ on precisely how they support these diverse functions, but there is general agreement that it involves constructing representations composed of numerous elem...
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in mental time travel toward the past and the future is debated. Here, patients with focal lesions to the vmPFC and brain-damaged and healthy controls mentally projected themselves to a past, present or future moment of subjective time (self-projection) and classified a series of events as past or ...
Social cognitive and affective neuroscience
Reinterpretation and distancing are two cognitive reappraisal tactics, used to regulate one's emotions in response to emotion-eliciting stimuli or situations. Relatively less is known about their (differential) lasting effects on emotional responding and related neural correlates. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated eighty...
Neurobiology of Stress
Hormonal contraceptives (HCs) affect various processes related to emotion processing, including emotional memory, fear extinction, and the cortisol response to stress. Despite the modulating role of HCs on the stress response in women and variance in synthetic hormone levels across the HC cycle, little is known about the phase-related effects of HC...
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Previous studies have reported that some objects evoke a sense of local three-dimensional space (space-defining; SD), while others do not (space-ambiguous; SA), despite being imagined or viewed in isolation devoid of a background context. Moreover, people show a strong preference for SD objects when given a choice of objects with which to mentally ...
BackgroundTo protect and maintain the positivity of self-concept, normal people usually show a self-serving bias (internal attribution of positive events and external attribution of negative events) by the motives of self-enhancement and self-protection. Additionally, self-serving assessments predominantly activate the subcortical-cortical midline ...
For episodic memories, reinstating the mental context of a past experience improves retrieval of memories formed during that experience. Does context reinstatement serve a similar role for implicit, associative memories such as fear and extinction? Here, we used a fear extinction paradigm to investigate whether the retrieval of extinction (safety) ...