Reviews in medical virology
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a key class of cellular regulators, involved in the modulation and control of multiple biological processes. Distinct classes of lncRNAs are now known to be induced by host cytokines following viral infections. Current evidence demonstrates that lncRNAs play essential roles at the host-pathogen interface regu...
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
The cyclic dinucleotides, GMP-AMP (cGAMP) and c-di-AMP [bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric AMP], are potent type I IFN inducers via STING-TBK1-IRF3 cascade. They are promising adjuvants that promote antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in different preclinical models; however, an optimal outcome of vaccination depends on a balanced immune...
Journal of Neuroimmunology
•Immunotherapy by anti-CD25 mAb and CpG of brain tumor•NK cells implication in brain tumor rejection induced by anti-CD25 and CpG injection•Anti-CD25 and CpG injection allow brain tumor rejection.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Substantial evidence gathered recently has revealed the multiple functionalities of hemocyanin. Contrary to previous claims that this ancient protein is involved solely in oxygen transport within the hemolymph of invertebrates, hemocyanin and hemocyanin-derived peptides have been linked to key aspects of innate immunity, in particular, antiviral an...
•Fine-tuning of IL-10 production in the host is essential for TB control.•TLR3 deficiency protects mice from BCG infection.•TLR3-PI3K/AKT mediates BCG-induced IL-10 production in macrophages.•Sensing of mycobacterial RNA by TLR3 is responsible for IL-10 induction.•TLR3 is identified as a novel PRR in mycobacterial diseases such as TB or leprosy.
Equine veterinary journal
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells detect pathogens to activate innate immunity which, in turn, initiates inflammatory and adaptive immune responses. Successful activation of PRRs is, therefore, critical to controlling infections and driving pathogen-specific adaptive immunity, but overactivity of PRRs causes systemic inflammation, ...
Encyclopedia of Microbiology
The devastating demographic, social, and economic impact of the HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) pandemic continues to pose a huge challenge and burden to the world since its emergence over 25 years ago. Nonetheless, great progress has been made in our understanding of various aspects of HIV pathogenesis. T...
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as sentinels of the innate immune system, sensing a variety of ligands from lipopolysaccharide to flagellin to dsRNA through their ligand-binding domain that is composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Ligand binding initiates a signaling cascade...