Chromosome segregation requires attachments between kinetochores and microtubules. In budding yeast, the kinetochore complex Dam1 oligomerizes around microtubules to facilitate this connection. Gutierrez et al. show that the cell-cycle kinase Cdk1 phosphorylates the Dam1 complex to strengthen kinetochore-microtubule attachments during mitosis.
The bipolar mitotic spindle drives accurate chromosome segregation by capturing the kinetochore and pulling each set of sister chromatids to the opposite poles. In this review, we describe recent findings on the multiple pathways leading to bipolar spindle formation in fission yeast and discuss these results from a broader perspective. The roles of...
Essays in biochemistry
Chromosome alignment and biorientation is essential for mitotic progression and genomic stability. Most chromosomes align at the spindle equator in a motor-independent manner. However, a subset of polar kinetochores fail to bi-orient and require a microtubule motor-based transport mechanism to move to the cell equator. Centromere Protein E (CENP-E/...
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Astrin, which is a spindle-associated protein, was found to be closely related to mitotic spindle formation and maintenance. It interacts with other spindle-related proteins to play a key role in maintaining the attachment of the kinetochore-microtubule and integrity of centrosomes and promoting the centriole duplication. In addition, Astrin was qu...
In meiosis, crossover (CO) formation between homologous chromosomes is essential for faithful segregation. However, misplaced meiotic recombination can have catastrophic consequences on genome stability. Within pericentromeres, COs are associated with meiotic chromosome missegregation. In organisms ranging from yeast to humans, pericentromeric COs ...
Faithful chromosome segregation is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and requires functional centromeres. Centromeres are epigenetically defined by the histone H3 variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A). Here we highlight current knowledge regarding CENP-A-containing chromatin structure, specification of centromere identity, regulat...
Eukaryotic chromosome segregation relies upon specific connections from DNA to the microtubule-based spindle that forms at cell division. The chromosomal locus that directs this process is the centromere, where a structure called the kinetochore forms upon entry into mitosis. Recent crystallography and single-particle electron microscopy have provi...
Roscioli et al. use subpixel imaging and computational methods to determine the ensemble-level 3D organization of the human kinetochore. They show how kinetochores undergo distinct rearrangements in response to the loss of attachment and tension.
AbstractMitotic division maintains genetic identity of any multicellular organism throughout an entire lifetime. Each time a parent cell divides, chromosomes are equally distributed between the daughter cells due to the action of mitotic spindle. Mitotic spindle is formed by the microtubules that represent dynamic polymers of tubulin protein. Spind...
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Kinesin motors provide the molecular forces at the kinetochore-microtubule interface and along the spindle to control chromosome segregation. During meiosis with two rounds of microtubule assembly-disassembly, the roles of motor proteins remain unexplored. We observed that in contrast to mitosis, Cin8 and Kip3 together are indispensable for meiosis...