Schreiber, Katherine A. Csáthy, Gábor A.
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

Due to its extremely rich phase diagram, the two-dimensional electron gas exposed to perpendicular magnetic fields has been the subject of intense and sustained study. One particularly interesting problem in this system is that of the half-filled Landau level, where the Fermi sea of composite fermions, a fractional quantum Hall state arising from a...

Torlai, Giacomo Melko, Roger G.
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

We review the development of generative modeling techniques in machine learning for the purpose of reconstructing real, noisy, many-qubit quantum states. Motivated by its interpretability and utility, we discuss in detail the theory of the restricted Boltzmann machine. We demonstrate its practical use for state reconstruction, starting from a class...

Pépin, C. Chakraborty, D. Grandadam, M. Sarkar, S.
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

The physics of the pseudogap phase of high-temperature cuprate superconductors has been an enduring mystery over the past 30 years. The ubiquitous presence of the pseudogap phase in underdoped cuprates suggests that understanding it is key to unraveling the origin of high-temperature superconductivity. We review various theoretical approaches to th...

Alert, Ricard Trepat, Xavier
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

Collective cell migration is a key driver of embryonic development, wound healing, and some types of cancer invasion. Here, we provide a physical perspective of the mechanisms underlying collective cell migration. We begin with a catalog of the cell–cell and cell–substrate interactions that govern cell migration, which we classify into positional a...

Kjaergaard, Morten Schwartz, Mollie E. Braumüller, Jochen Krantz, Philip Wang, Joel I.-J. Gustavsson, Simon Oliver, William D.
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

Superconducting qubits are leading candidates in the race to build a quantum computer capable of realizing computations beyond the reach of modern supercomputers. The superconducting qubit modality has been used to demonstrate prototype algorithms in the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) technology era, in which non-error-corrected qubits are...

Madeira, L. Caracanhas, M.A. dos Santos, F.E.A. Bagnato, V.S.
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

Turbulence is characterized by a large number of degrees of freedom, distributed over several length scales, that result in a disordered state of a fluid. The field of quantum turbulence deals with the manifestation of turbulence in quantum fluids, such as liquid helium and ultracold gases. We review, from both experimental and theoretical points o...

Bahri, Yasaman Kadmon, Jonathan Pennington, Jeffrey Schoenholz, Sam S. Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha Ganguli, Surya
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

The recent striking success of deep neural networks in machine learning raises profound questions about the theoretical principles underlying their success. For example, what can such deep networks compute? How can we train them? How does information propagate through them? Why can they generalize? And how can we teach them to imagine? We review re...

Rylands, Colin Andrei, Natan
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

Driven by breakthroughs in experimental and theoretical techniques, the study of nonequilibrium quantum physics is a rapidly expanding field with many exciting new developments. Among the manifold ways the topic can be investigated, one-dimensional systems provide a particularly fine platform. The trifecta of strongly correlated physics, powerful t...

Harper, Fenner Roy, Rahul Rudner, Mark S. Sondhi, S.L.
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

Floquet systems are governed by periodic, time-dependent Hamiltonians. Prima facie they should absorb energy from the external drives involved in modulating their couplings and heat up to infinite temperature. However, this unhappy state of affairs can be avoided in many ways. Instead, as has become clear from much recent work, Floquet systems can ...

Greene, Richard L. Mandal, Pampa R. Poniatowski, Nicholas R. Sarkar, Tarapada
Published in
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

An understanding of the high-temperature copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors has eluded the physics community for over thirty years and represents one of the greatest unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. Particularly enigmatic is the normal state from which superconductivity emerges, so much so that this phase has been dubbed a “strang...